Educational specimen box, 1850. England. Via V&A

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, on whose theories this box is based, was advocating a holistic and child-centred approach to the education of the young as early as the 1790s. He used a radically different approach at a time when most teachers used methods which depended upon the written word and the ‘correct’ answer, and relied on punishment to make their pupils comply. Read more:  V&A

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